The brain is the most complex organ in the human body and the bodies of all non-human vertebrate animals. Even before we could precisely measure functions of the brain, philosophers and scientists created unique theories about the way the brain works and how it supports who we are and what we are capable of doing. Over the past couple of decades, billions of dollars have been invested to understand how the brain functions, how the brain ages, how disorders of the brain occur, and the extent to which brain function can explain how people behave. Yet, even with this vast investment of money and resources, we still know relatively little about the essential mysteries of the brain. Moreover, we still hold fast to naïve myths about brain function that may lead to false and sometimes dangerous understandings about human potential. This course is intended to challenge common assumptions about the brain and illustrate how brain science can play a crucial role in medicine, education, and society.